|see also: shime
see also: Wikipedia
||‘Soft’, ‘Pliant’, ‘Adaptable’, ‘Yielding’, ‘Harmonious’. This Sino-Japanese
written character has often been translated as ‘Gentle’. The interpretation
of the meaning of ‘gentle’ in relation to the practice of martial arts is
frequently misleading. Many people have equated gentle with weak, when in
fact the character contains more and idea of flexibility, in both mind and
body. When a bamboo or willow branch is laden down with snow, it yields;
it is flexible towards the new ‘circumstances’, and by yielding it allows
the snow to fall to the ground, preserving its own existence and springing
back into place with more force and speed than was employed in its yielding
and bending action. The concept of Ju therefore implies flexibility
and suppleness in direct proportion to subsequent speed and force. It is
the direct opposite of hardness, or Go. Thus, whatever word is used
to translate ‘Ju’, that word in itself will be insufficient without
a practical explanation of its meaning. See Ju-no-ri,
||(joo) “gentle,” “supple,” or soft
The principle of suppleness, adaptation, and nonresistance recognized in
aikido and judo.
The number ten.
||A word meaning softness and yielding, referring to the flexibility of
both the mind and body. Turning the opponent’s own momentum against him or
her, and allowing the opponent to defeat him or herself is the essence of
ju. Passive resistance thus is preferred to active resistance and
was especially prized by monks who did not wish to permanently injure or
kill anyone. Ju is the opposite of go, hardness and
action, and exists in a yin-yang relationship to it.
see also: Wikipedia
||[Style] (lit. Gentle Way) A sport founded by Kano Jigoro in 1882,
derived from the fighting techniques of ju-jutsu.
||‘Way of gentleness’, a nonviolent, basically defensive martial art created
in 1882 by Kano Jigoro (1860-1938). It is mainly based on the techniques
of unarmed combat used in Ju-jutsu as practised
by the Bushi. The word Judo itself had already
been used by the Jikishin-ryu of Ju-jutsu to describe their own art
of combat, which relied on techniques which were not fatal. It was revived
and used by Kano Jigoro, who wished to turn Ju-jutsu into a ‘martial sport’,
to train and educate the young. He said: ‘the aim of Judo is to understand
and demonstrate the living laws of movement.’ To this end, Kano Jigoro codified
a certain number of body, arm and leg movements used in Ju-jutsu which had
shown themselves very effective in hand-to-hand combat. They covered fighting
on the floor and standing up. Kano Jigoro used those aspects of these techniques
which could upset an opponent’s balance
(Kuzushi) and also immobilize him or her.
The overall aim was to be able to neutralize an opponent. He thus created
an art of self-defence which is learned in conjunction with a study of the
fundamental movements, with a partner. This is expanded into training in
freestyle combat known as Randori, in which the opponent, or ‘the
one who submits’ (Uke), is thrown to the mat
and immobilized by ‘the one who throws’
(Tori). Training and contests take place
in a Judojo (shortened to Dojo), on a surface covered with
Tatami to soften the falls
(Ukemi). As in all the martial arts, the
practitioners of judo (Judoka) seek to acquire suppleness of body
and limbs, speed of body shifting
(Tai-sabaki), perfect balance through
the control of the breath and the concentration of the energies in the Hara,
as well as a thorough knowledge of the techniques of the art. A spirit of
detachment and serenity should prevail throughout. Students must aim to be
in a state of permanent alertness (Hontai), without allowing any ‘dead
moments’ (Bonno). Armed with a disciplined mind, calm and serene with controlled body and reactions, such students will then be able to bring about the downfall of any adversary with ease.
Judo was created in Tokyo in the Buddhist temple known as Eiho-ji in 1882.
It developed rapidly and the first black belt grade (see
Kyudan) was conferred by Kano Jigoro on
Taira Shiro in 1883. When Kano Jigoro came to Europe in 1889 to teach his
techniques, his Doio numbered some 600 pupils. After a demonstration which
he gave in Marseilles during the same year, the first Doio were established
in France, notably in Paris under the direction of Jean-Joseph Renaud and
Guy de Montgrillard. Back in Japan, the founder continued his work and in
1922 he established the Kodokan, which was to become the official
centre of Judo.
||(joo'doh) “gentle way” A Japanese art of self-defense and a sport with
Olympic recognition, judo is now practiced in almost every country in the
world. Like jujutsu, its forerunner, judo is a method
of turning an opponent’s strength and overcoming by skill rather than sheer
strength. Judo in its present form was founded by Jigoro Kano in 1882 who
gave the sport its name.
Judo techniques are divided into three categories:
tachi-waza (standing techniques),
ne-waza (ground techniques), and
atemi-waza (vital point techniques).
Tachi-waza, also called nage-waza (throwing
techniques), are subdivided into te-waza (hand
throwing techniques), koshi-waza (hip techniques),
ashi-waza (foot and leg techniques), and
sutemi-waza (sacrifice techniques) in which
one throws one’s opponent from a supine position.
Ne-waza is a method of fighting an opponent on
the ground and is divided into
osaekomi-waza (holding techniques),
shime-waza (strangling techniques), and
kansetsu-waza (locking techniques).
Atemi-waza includes methods of striking the
opponent with either hand or foot. It is practiced only for self-defense
and is prohibited in competition.
In a judo contest, only one point is needed to defeat an adversary. Points
are awarded for a clean throw; for controlling an opponent on the ground
for thirty seconds; or for obtaining surrender by applying either a stranglehold
or an arm lock. If neither opponent obtains a point in the given time, the
referee may award the decision due to the aggressiveness of one fighter over
Grading in judo is based on both proficiency in contest and on one’s knowledge
of the art. Designations in rank are shown by the different colors of the
belt. Beginners start with a white belt and are gradually promoted to yellow,
orange, green, blue, and brown belt. Ultimately, the student advances to
black belt. The dan ranks range from first-degree
black belt, the lowest, to tenth-degree, the highest level of achievement.
Judo is practiced in a dojo (the place of the way), or training hall, which
is covered by mats. The participants wear a gi (uniform)
consisting of a loose jacket, pants, and a belt.
Training in judo consists of randori (free exercise), kata (formal exercise),
and uchikomi (inner winding), or stationary exercise.
Etiquette plays an important role in judo. It is customary for all jodoka
to bow toward kamiza both when entering and leaving the dojo. A bow is also
exchanged between judoka at the beginning and end of each practice sessions,
and formal classes always begin with the students bowing to the
||The way of gentleness or pliability a sports-orientated form of ju-jitsu
devised by Dr Jigoro Kano.
||gentleness, giving way
||“The Way if Gentleness” is a defensive martial art that was created in
1882. Like Aikido, this soft grappling style is based on the techniques of
Jujutsu. Judo emphasizes upsetting an opponent’s
balance, using various throwing techniques. Also like Aikido, Judo techniques
include those that control an attacker in addition to those that throw an
attacker. However, Judo also relies on a wide variety of grappling techniques,
including those to immobilize an attacker. Joint locking and strangulation
techniques are taught. No weapons are practiced. The founder, Kano Jigoro,
adapted what he felt were the valuable Jujutsu techniques, though he abhorred
the brutality of Jujutsu. Students attempt to defeat the opponent as efficiently
as possible thus fulfilling one of Kano Jigoro’s concepts (the concept of
maximum efficiency with minimum effort). While Judo uses the throws,
strangulations and joint-locks of Jujutsu, the use of these techniques is
strictly controlled, which distinguishes Judo the sport from Jujutsu the
combat art. This fulfills the other of Kano Jigoro’s concepts, the concept
of mutual welfare and benefit.
|see also: keikogi
||[Judo] the training uniform used in Judo
||The clothing worn specifically for Judo training
(Keiko). It is made of thick white cotton,
or unbleached cotton. It consists of a pair of large, baggy trousers
(Zubon), a wide-fitting jacket (Uwagi) with wide sleeves coming
halfway down the forearm (Sode), and a belt
(Obi), which is white, black, or a colour
conforming to the grade of the wearer. Judoka train in bare feet on
the Tatami or mats. The place where they study is called a
Dojo. See Kyudan,
||(joo-doh-gee) “judo uniform” The uniform worn for judo. It consists of
a jacket and trousers and a belt. Traditionally, the uniform is white.
||judo training wear
The jacket, pants and belt worn when practicing judo are collectively called
judogi. The jacket and pants are white; the belt varies in color according
to the rank of the wearer.
||The uniform worn by Judo practitioners is called a judogi or
gi, and the trousers, zubon, usually extend only to the mid
calf. The fundoshi, a tight fitting loin cloth, is worn by Judo
practitioners to avoid injury. The practitioner might also wear zori,
known as Judo slippers, made of rubber or straw.
||[Common Usage] cross
||no specific entry
Juji-garami [Aikido] ‘Keeping in
the shape of a cross’. This is a type of controlling movement which makes
a cross-shape (Juji)
Juji-gatame [Judo] In groundwork
(Ne-waza) techniques, this is a
technique of gripping, extending and locking the arm of the Uke by the Tori.
The arm forms a cross-shape, lying across Tori’s pubic region.
||no specific entry
Juji-gatame (joo-jee ga-ta-meh)
“cross armlock” A judo armlock in which the legs are placed crosswise over
an opponent’s body, trapping the opponent’s arm between the thighs. When
the hips are slightly raised, the elbow joint is bent backward, causing pain.
Juji-gatame is the twelfth technique of
katame-no-kata. It is also known as the
jee-may') “cross lock” or “strangle-cross choke” A group of judo choking
techniques in which the arms are crossed while gripping the opponent’s collar
on both sides.
||cross, eg., nami juji jime-normal cross chokelock
||[Karate] A block against an arm attack using the crossed wrists.
||(joo'jee-oo'keh) “cross block” Any block where one arm overlaps the other,
usually at the wrist or forearm.
||X block or cross block
Performed with crossed forearms (usually right over left) with strong thrusting
movement. Upward to guard the high section, downward to guard the low section.
The wrists are used to trap the attacking limb.
|see also: ju jutsu
||power of mind
Stated simply jujitsu1 is the gentle art of self-defense.
This is a very simple definition for a very complicated art. It does have
a more complex definition. If we look at the many characteristics of the
art it will be possible to come up with a more complete definition, one that
is more suitable for the serious student.
First, jujitsu is what might be called a parent art. A parent art
is an art from which other martial arts develop. Since jujitsu has such a
broad history it was inevitable that other arts, or more correctly,
ways would evolve from it. Judo (gentle way) and
aikido (the way of mind and spirit) can trace direct lines to jujitsu. Many
styles of karate, especially kenpo, can also trace some of their techniques
back to jujitsu. Therefore, in addition to being a parent art, jujitsu is
also a combination of many of the more popular martial arts taught today.
Upon observing a practitioner of jujitsu one win see flashes of each separate
do. One will also see how many separate moves can be combined into
an effective self-defense system.
Jujitsu is a series or combination of techniques that have been separated
into other arts. Why was jujitsu separated into specific do or ways?
Jujitsu may have become too complex as an art or, because there was no single
system or systemized way of teaching it, too difficult to learn. Both Kano
and Uyeshiba were able to simplify and systemize their ways. There are perhaps
30 to 50 basic moves in jujitsu. However, it is the combinations and variations
of the basic moves that make the art so complex and almost infinite in its
variety of moves. By dividing the art into three general areas (judo for
throws and leverage, karate for strikes and hits, and aikido for nerves and
the use of attacker momentum), portions of the art would be easier to teach.
They would also be easier to organize and perpetuate as a system.
As they become easier (a relative term) to teach, organize, and perpetuate
as a system, the way would also become more attractive to potential
students. I am not placing a value judgment on the validity of any
martial art, as all arts are effective when placed in their proper context.
I am merely presenting one logical possibility in the evolution of the martial
arts. Jujitsu was in decline in 19th-century Japan, a time period when other
martial arts were on the rise. Jujitsu was a complex art. The other martial
arts were also complex, but because they could be organized and limited in
their scope they became easier to teach. Their growth was inevitable.
Jujitsu ultimately survived by traveling two parallel pathways. There were
those who continued to teach the art as an art, realizing that students would
recognize the virtue of studying jujitsu and pass that knowledge on. There
were also those who studied one of the do that evolved from jujitsu,
became proficient, realized something was missing, and developed proficiency
in each of the other do that make up a major portion of jujitsu. In
their own way, they put the pieces of the puzzle back together again. It
may not have been quite the same puzzle that jujitsu started out as, but
all the pieces still fit. They were able to integrate judo, karate, and aikido
back into the martial art of jujitsu to provide an effective system.
This theory of two paths can be borne out by observing the variety of
styles of jujitsu that exist in the United States and throughout the
world today. Despite their differences in terminology (and sequence in which
techniques are taught) they are all remarkably similar. Many, in fact, are
identical by the time the student gets to the level of shodan. It was my
own instructor’s belief that there are no styles of jujitsu — only
the art of jujitsu.
Jujitsu is an extremely effective self-defense system. If jujitsu is taught
as an art the student will have a vast resource to draw upon to defend himself
with. He has learned a series of basic moves that can be combined in an almost
unlimited manner. His only limitation is his knowledge and understanding
of the moves and how and why they work. A skilled student can create and
control the amount of pain his assailant may feel without any injury taking
place. He can also create sufficient pain and disabling injuries that will
make it impossible for the assailant to continue his attack.
Surprisingly, jujitsu is also a form of relaxation. There is nothing more
rejuvenating than letting your developed ki
(energy) control your situation on the mat. You don’t know what attacks
are coming at you and you don’t have time to think about them anyway. It’s
a pleasure to let your ki control your own body, executing techniques smoothly,
without your sensing any mental or physical output taking place. This is
a skill that is acquired after much practice and patience. This is also what
makes jujitsu an art.
1Jujitsu can also be spelled
jiujitsu, jujutsu, and any number of
various ways, but they all refer to the same art.
||Japanese composite system of all-in fighting techniques.
see also: Encyclopedia Britannica
see also: Wikipedia
|see also: ju jitsu
see also: Wikipedia
||[Style] (lit. Flexible Way, Way of Flexibility) Techniques for
close combat, including throwing, pinning, jointlocking, striking and kicking,
and choking and strangling, which were used by
bushi. The roots of this art have been traced
to before the eleventh century. Today, many different branches and styles
exist, as well as modern derivatives such as aikido and
||‘Science of softness’, techniques of combat elaborated by the
Bushi during the Kamakura period (1185-1333)
in Japan. It was intended for disarmed warriors, so that they could defend
themselves against enemies who were still armed. This art developed from
the ancient techniques of Kumi-tachi (or Yawara) as described
in the Konjaku-monogatari, a Buddhist work dating from the thirteenth
century. Over the centuries, various schools of Ju-jutsu developed
such as Wa-jutsu, Yawara, Kogusoku, Kempo,
Hakuda and Shubaku; each being a part of the ‘Way of archery
and horsemanship’ (Kyuba-no-michi). They improved on the more primitive
techniques and combined them with movements and countering grips taken from
Chinese methods of combat (see Shaolin-si) as well as specific techniques
used by the peasants of Okinawa. A reciprocal movement took place when Ju-jutsu
was exported to China by Chen Yuanbin (1587-1671), a Chinese poet and diplomat
sent to Japan, when he returned to his native land around 1638. Ju-jutsu
became a martial art only in the Edo period, when Japan was at peace. Numerous
schools created by the Ronin (or masterless
Samurai) spread their techniques throughout
the country. These were codified only with the dawn of the Meiji period
(1868-1912), from the time when the Samurai were no longer permitted to carry
swords and the fighting feuds between noble families were forbidden.
The essential principle of Ju-jutsu is to conquer the enemy with any and
all means, minimal force. This demands from its followers a strict conformity
to various disciplines. They must:
be able to judge the force of an opponent’s attack and use it against him
before it takes effect;
in the course of a confrontation, be able to bring an opponent off balance;
if possible, evade an attack;
know how to attack without necessarily being able to reach the weak points;
know how to topple an opponent by making use of leverage;
know how to immobilize an opponent by holding him down on the ground, twisting
his limbs, bending his limbs or strangling him;
know how to strike the vital points of the body in such a way as to produce
loss of consciousness, serious injury and even death.
In actual fact, the older art of Ju-jutsu for warriors, as distinct from
its modern descendants, aimed to annihilate the enemy and render him powerless.
This principal intention led warriors to use all kinds of dangerous — often
fatal — techniques. Ju-jutsu was first practised by the Samurai, then
by the Ninja, and finally spread among the rest of the populace, to
become an offensive technique mainly used by bandits. From this stems the
bad reputation which it has never lost. This is why Kano Jigoro, in adapting
the ‘gentle’ techniques of Ju-jutsu to create a new sporting system, called
this system Judo, to distinguish it from the deadly
art of Ju-jutsu.
Around 1922, the date of the official creation of the Kodokan, only
Ju-jutsu was recognized and taught in innumerable Ryu or ‘schools’, in Japan
as well as abroad. The armed forces and the police in Western countries were
interested in this particular art, to give them some advantage in fighting
situations. Even today, the majority of the armed forces of the world teach
their recruits some techniques of ‘close combat’ which are inspired by Ju-jutsu,
Karate and various types of combat from local sources such as boxing,
wrestling, Savate, etc.
To a large extent Ju-jutsu has been de-throned by Judo, Karate
and Aikido. This fall from favour has led to its being no longer widely
considered as a sport, only as a number of techniques for real fighting.
In recent years some variations have appeared, mainly in the West, and followers
of such systems have devised sporting contests with rules and methods of
scoring. International Ju-jutsu tournaments have been staged in Canada and
in Great Britain. This relatively new trend is reversing the first one and
demonstrating the prevailing state of flux in martial arts. However, it is
from the ancient schools of Ju-jutsu that almost all the current techniques
used in martial arts flow. Also referred to erroneously as
Ju-jitsu and as Jiu-jitsu.
||(joo-jut'soo) “art of gentleness,” “art of suppleness,” or “art of pliancy”
Literally, the technique or art of suppleness, flexibility, pliancy, gentleness
— all varying renditions of the ideogram “ju.” All of these terms, however,
represent a single principle, a general method of applying a technique, of
using the human body as a weapon in unarmed combat.
Jujutsu techniques include methods of striking, kicking, kneeing, throwing,
choking, and in particular, joint-locking. Weaponry, as well as holding and
tying an adversary, is also part of this popular Japanese system.
According to certain authorities, jujutsu appeared during the 13th
century. Among many others, the following are mentioned prominently in martial
chronicles as having been notable jujutsu schools: the Tenjin-Shinyo-ryu,
the Takenouchi-ryu, the Sosuishitsu-ryu, the Kito-ryu, and the Sekiguchi-ryu.
Together with a number of others, these schools formed a modified synthesis
in the school of judo founded by Jigoro Kano in the
19th century. Almost all of these methods of combat developed
through the skilled adaptation of the principle of
ju to their techniques.
More than 725 jujutsu systems developed in Japan. Today, the art has spread
worldwide, but it is not as popular as karate. It is probably more popularly
known as either jujitsu or jiu-jitsu, two variations
of the word whose accuracy is questionable.
||the gentle art, the way of gentleness
||A general name meaning “science of softness” that is applied to many
schools of unarmed and hand-to-hand combat. The earliest schools were created
during the twelfth through fourteenth centuries in Japan. The soft grappling
style was intended to help disarmed soldiers to fight against still armed
enemies. The basic principle was to defeat the enemy in any way possible,
using the least amount of force necessary. Jujutsu emphasizes turning an
attacker’s own force against him or herself. The opponent is put off balance
and immobilized. Jujutsu also emphasizes certain grappling moves and striking
to vital areas. The proficient Jujutsu practitioner is expected to know how
to gauge the force of an opponent’s attack and use that force against the
opponent; know how to evade an attack; know how to use leverage against an
opponent; and know how to attack in case the vulnerable areas of the opponent’s
body are not open to attack. Over the centuries, the basic techniques have
been improved upon by many important martial artists. Techniques from Chinese
and Okinawan martial schools use small weapons, but the techniques consist
primarily of anatomical weapons, with some schools favoring hitting and kicking
like Karate, and others favoring throws and groundwork like Judo.
Samurai, in particular those without masters,
established many schools of Jujutsu. From this unruly beginning, the style
developed a disreputable quality. Ninja and peasants began to use the art,
and so it was associated with non-noble individuals, which did not enhance
its prestige. The art became more and more ruthless with dangerous, even
fatal, results. Schools tested their efficiency in contests with other schools.
These contests, though dangerous and even deadly, could enhance the status
of a particular school or instructor, and also helped improve techniques.
The close combat methods used in the armed forces are taken from Jujutsu.
||[Common Usage] art; used to distinguish between the older martial arts
intended for combat and more contemporary ones whose purpose is self-cultivation.
||‘True’, ‘Technique’. This means an art (Gei), a science or a technique
rooted in the tradition of a school (Ryu). One can acquire it only
after long years of training and study. The term applies to all the ‘violent’
martial arts, just as the term Do applies to the martial arts which
are not meant for real fighting. Apart from
Ju-jutsu, all the other martial arts with
the element ‘jutsu’ in their names include also the name of the weapon
which they employ. Examples are Kyu-jutsu, Ken-jutsu,
||(ju'tsoo) “art” A term linking a fighting method with the
bugei, or martial disciplines of war, rather than
with the sporting or aesthetic practices of modern Japan. The philosophic
and aesthetic sects are generally connected to the do (way) methods
developed after the mid 18th century. See also
||Method or technique.
||(JITSU) art, eg., jujutsu-soft art (Note. Jujitsu can also be
spelled jiujitsu, jujutsu, and numerous other ways, but basically all refer
to the same art.)
||A term that indicates a style or school of the martial arts that emphasizes
force and combat effectiveness. These styles often use weapons and try to
imitate “real” combat or fighting situations. These are combat arts or arts
of war (bugei) rather than those martial arts that
emphasize sport aspects or personal growth. Modern “way” arts stem from jutsu
arts. See Bugei,